Across the Universe

Written by Lennon - McCartney

Album This song officially appears on the No One's Gonna Change Our World Official album.
Timeline This song has been officially released in 1970
Sessions This song has been recorded during the following sessions

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Song facts

From Wikipedia:

Across the Universe” is a song recorded by the Beatles. It was written by John Lennon and credited to Lennon–McCartney. The song first appeared on the various artists’ charity compilation album No One’s Gonna Change Our World in December 1969, and later, in different form, on Let It Be, the group’s final released album.


One night in 1967, the phrase “words are flowing out like endless rain into a paper cup” came to Lennon after hearing his then-wife Cynthia, according to Lennon, “going on and on about something“. Later, after “she’d gone to sleep – and I kept hearing these words over and over, flowing like an endless stream“, Lennon went downstairs and turned it into a song. He began to write the rest of the lyrics and when he was done, he went to bed and forgot about them.

I was lying next to my first wife in bed, you know, and I was irritated, and I was thinking. She must have been going on and on about something and she’d gone to sleep and I kept hearing these words over and over, flowing like an endless stream. I went downstairs and it turned into a sort of cosmic song rather than an irritated song, rather than a “Why are you always mouthing off at me?”. [The words] were purely inspirational and were given to me as boom!. I don’t own it you know; it came through like that.

The flavour of the song was heavily influenced by Lennon’s and the Beatles’ interest in Transcendental Meditation in late 1967 – early 1968, when the song was composed. Based on this, he added the mantra “Jai guru deva om” (Sanskrit: जय गुरुदेव ॐ) to the piece, which became the link to the chorus. The Sanskrit phrase is a sentence fragment whose words could have many meanings. Literally it approximates as “glory to the shining remover of darkness” and can be paraphrased as “Victory to God divine“, “Hail to the divine guru“, or the phrase commonly invoked by the late Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in referring to his spiritual teacher, “All glory to Guru Dev“.

The song’s lyrical structure is straightforward: three repetitions of a unit consisting of a verse, the line “Jai guru deva om” and the line “Nothing’s gonna change my world” repeated four times. The lyrics are highly image-based, with abstract concepts reified with phrases like thoughts “meandering“, words “slithering“, and undying love “shining“. The title phrase “across the universe” appears at intervals to finish lines, although it never cadences, always appearing as a rising figure, melodically unresolved. It finishes on the leading note; to the Western musical ear, the next musical note would be the tonic and would therefore sound complete.

In his 1970 interview with Rolling Stone, Lennon referred to the song as perhaps the best, most poetic lyric he ever wrote: “It’s one of the best lyrics I’ve written. In fact, it could be the best. It’s good poetry, or whatever you call it, without chewin’ it. See, the ones I like are the ones that stand as words, without melody. They don’t have to have any melody, like a poem, you can read them.

Musical structure

On a standard-tuned guitar (EADGBE) the song is played in the key of D; however, the recording was slowed electronically, resulting in a lower C# tuning to the ear. The verse beginning “Words are flowing out” (I (D) chord) is notable for a prolonged vi (Bm)–iii (F#m) to ii7 (Em7) minor drop to the dominant chord V7 (A7) on “across the universe” in the 4th bar. On the repeat of this chord sequence a turn following the ii7 (Em7) through a iv minor (Gm) brings the verse to a close before moving on directly to the tonic on the “Jai Guru Deva Om” refrain. The vi–ii minor drop leading to V had been used earlier in “I Will” (on “how long I’ve loved you”) and George Harrison utilised a shorter vi–iii minor alternation to delay getting back to the dominant (V) in “I Need You“. The verse beginning “Words are flowing out like endless rain …” is also notable for the suitably breathless phrasing and almost constant 8th-note rhythm (initially four D melody notes, then C#, B, A, B).

Recording and version history

February 1968 recordings

In February 1968, the Beatles convened at the EMI Abbey Road studios to record a single for release during their absence on their forthcoming trip to India. Paul McCartney had written “Lady Madonna“, and Lennon had “Across the Universe“. Both tracks were recorded along with Lennon’s “Hey Bulldog” and the vocal track for Harrison’s “The Inner Light” between 3 and 11 February.

The basic track was taped on 4 February. Along with acoustic guitar, percussion and tambura, it featured an overdubbed sitar introduction by Harrison. Two teenage fans, Lizzie Bravo and Gayleen Pease, were invited in off the street to provide backup vocals.

Lennon was still not satisfied with the feel of the track, and several sound effects were taped, including 15 seconds of humming and a guitar and a harp-like sound, both to be played backwards; however, none of these were used on the released version. The track was mixed to mono and put aside as the group had decided to release “Lady Madonna” and “The Inner Light” as the single. On their return from India, the group set about recording the many songs they had written there, and “Across the Universe” remained on the shelf. In the autumn of 1968, the Beatles seriously considered releasing an EP including most of the songs for the Yellow Submarine album and “Across the Universe“, and went as far as having the EP mastered.

World Wildlife Fund version

During the February 1968 recording sessions, Spike Milligan dropped into the studio and, on hearing the song, suggested the track would be ideal for release on a charity album he was organising for the World Wildlife Fund. At some point in 1968, the Beatles agreed to this proposal. In January 1969, the best mono mix was remixed for the charity album. In keeping with the “wildlife” theme of the album, sound effects of birds were added to the beginning and end. The original (mono) mix from February 1968 is 3:37 in length. After the effects were added, the track was speeded up so that even with 20 seconds of effects, it is only 3:49. Speeding up the recording also raised the key to E-flat. By October 1969, it was decided that the song needed to be remixed into stereo. This was done by Geoff Emerick immediately prior to the banding of the album. “Across the Universe” was first released in this version on the Regal Starline SRS 5013 album No One’s Gonna Change Our World in December 1969. The January 1969 mono mix was also considered for an aborted “Yellow Submarine” EP and was finally released as part of “The Beatles in Mono” box set in 2009.

This version was issued on three Beatles compilation albums: the British version of Rarities, the different American version of Rarities and the second disc of the two-CD Past Masters album.

Let It Be version

The Beatles took the song up again during the Get Back/Let It Be rehearsal sessions of January 1969; footage of Lennon playing the song appeared in the Let It Be movie. Bootleg recordings from the sessions include numerous full group performances of the song, usually with Lennon–McCartney harmonies on the chorus. To ensure the album tied in with the film, it was decided that the song must be included on what by January 1970 had become the Let It Be album. Also, Lennon’s contributions to the sessions were sparse, and this unreleased piece was seen as a way to fill the gap.

Although the song was extensively rehearsed on the Twickenham Studios soundstage, the only recordings were mono transcriptions for use in the film soundtrack. No multitrack recordings were made after the group’s move to Apple Studios. Thus in early January 1970 Glyn Johns remixed the February 1968 recording. The new mix omitted the teenage girls’ vocals and the bird sound effects of the World Wildlife Fund version. As neither of the Glyn Johns Get Back albums were officially released, the version most are familiar with came from Phil Spector, who in late March and early April 1970 remixed the February 1968 recording yet again and added orchestral and choral overdubs. Spector also slowed the track to 3:47, close to its original speed. According to Lennon, “Spector took the tape and did a damn good job with it“.

Other versions

A previously-unreleased February 1968 alternate take of the song (recorded before the master), without heavy production, appeared on Anthology 2 in 1996. This is often referred to as the “psychedelic” recording because of the strong Indian sitar and tambura sound, and illustrates the band’s original uncertainty over the best treatment for the song.

The February 1968 master was remixed again for inclusion on Let It Be… Naked in 2003, at the correct speed but stripped of most of the instrumentation and digitally processed to correct tuning issues.

Critical reception and legacy

Music critic Richie Unterberger of AllMusic said the song was “one of the group’s most delicate and cosmic ballads” and “one of the highlights of the Let It Be album“. Music critic Ian MacDonald was critical of the song, calling it a “plaintively babyish incantation” and saying “its vague pretensions and listless melody are rather too obviously the products of acid grandiosity rendered gentle by sheer exhaustion“.

Lennon himself was unhappy with the song as it was recorded. In his 1980 Playboy interview Lennon says that the Beatles “didn’t make a good record of it” and says of the Let It Be version that “the guitars are out of tune and I’m singing out of tune…and nobody’s supporting me or helping me with it and the song was never done properly“. He further accused McCartney of ruining the song:

Paul would … sort of subconsciously try and destroy a great song … usually we’d spend hours doing little detailed cleaning-ups of Paul’s songs; when it came to mine … somehow this atmosphere of looseness and casualness and experimentation would creep in. Subconscious sabotage.

On 4 February 2008, at 00:00 UTC, NASA transmitted the Interstellar Message “Across the Universe” in the direction of the star Polaris, 431 light years from Earth. The transmission was made using a 70m antenna in the Deep Space Network’s Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex, located outside of Madrid, Spain. It was done with an “X band” transmitter, radiating into the antenna at 18 kW. This was done to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the song’s recording, the 45th anniversary of the Deep Space Network (DSN), and the 50th anniversary of NASA. The idea was hatched by Beatles historian Martin Lewis, who encouraged all Beatles fans to play the track as it was beamed to the distant star. The event marked the first time a song had ever been intentionally transmitted into deep space, and was approved by McCartney, Yoko Ono, and Apple Corps. (The first musical interstellar message was “1st Theremin Concert to Aliens“, section 2 of the Teen Age Message, in 2001.) […]

From The Usenet Guide to Beatles Recording Variations:

  • [a] stereo 2 Oct 1969.
    UK: Regal Starline SRS 5013 No One’s Gonna Change Our World 1970,
    Parlophone PSLP 261 and PCM 1001 Rarities 1978-79, Parlophone PCS 7214 Ballads 1980.
    US: Capitol SHAL-12060 Rarities 1980.
    CD: EMI CDP 7 90044 2 Past Masters 2 1988.
  • [b] stereo 2 Apr 1970.
    UK: Apple PXS1 and PCS 7096 Let It Be 1970, Apple PCSP 718 The Beatles 1967-1970 1973.
    US: Apple AR 34001 Let It Be 1970, Apple SKBO-3404 The Beatles 1967-1970 1973.
    CD: EMI CDP 7 46447 2 Let It Be 1987, EMI CDP 7 97039 2 The Beatles 1967-1970 1993.

Neither of these is at the recorded speed; the old mix [a] is faster and the new mix [b] is slower than the original tape. The finished mono mix made in Feb 1968 has never been issued. [a] has animal sounds overdubbed during mixing for SRS 5013, a benefit album for the World Wildlife Fund. [b] has most of the original instrumentation mixed out and replaced by new orchestra and choral vocals recorded in 1970.

From Anthology 2 liner notes:

The February 1968 sessions that began with Lady Madonna also embraced the B-side of that single, George’s The Inner Light, and two of John’s compositions, Hey Bulldog, which went on to the album Yellow Submarine, and Across The Universe, which seems to have been treated with an undeserved lack of appreciation. The first master of Across The Universe, with bird sound effects and – courtesy of two female fans – backing vocals, was not issued until almost two years after its recording and then it appeared only as part of a charity compilation. Then the song re-surfaced a few months later on the Beatles’ last album Let It Be, remixed by Phil Spector.

Here, for the first time, is an unembellished and alternative recording Across The Universe, Take 2, recorded on Saturday 3 February 1968 in EMI Studio Three, temporarily marked “best” on the tape box and so afforded overdubs and technical wonders like the phasing on John’s guitar and the percussion.


Words are flowing out like endless rain into a paper cup
They slither wildly as they slip away across the universe
Pools of sorrow, waves of joy are drifting through my opened mind
Possessing and caressing me
Jai Guru Deva OM

Nothing's gonna change my world
Nothing's gonna change my world
Nothing's gonna change my world
Nothing's gonna change my world

Images of broken light which dance before me like a million eyes
They call me on and on across the universe
Thoughts meander like a restless wind inside a letter box
They tumble blindly as they make their way across the universe
Jai Guru Deva OM

Nothing's gonna change my world
Nothing's gonna change my world
Nothing's gonna change my world
Nothing's gonna change my world

Sounds of laughter, shades of life are ringing through my open ears
Inciting and inviting me
Limitless undying love which shines around me like a million suns
It calls me on and on, across the universe
Jai Guru Deva OM

Nothing's gonna change my world
Nothing's gonna change my world
Nothing's gonna change my world
Nothing's gonna change my world

Jai Guru Deva
Jai Guru Deva
Jai Guru Deva
Jai Guru Deva
Jai Guru Deva

Officially appears on

No One's Gonna Change Our World

Official album • Released in 1969

3:49 • Studio version

Let It Be

Official album • Released in 1970

3:48 • Studio version

Paul McCartney:
Acoustic guitar, Backing vocals, Piano
Ringo Starr:
Drums, Percussion, Svaramandal
John Lennon:
Acoustic rhythm guitar, Backing vocals, Organ, Vocals
George Harrison:
Backing vocals, Electric guitar, Maracas, Tambura
George Martin:
Hammond organ, Producer
Ken Scott:
Peter Bown:
Martin Benge:
Lizzie Bravo:
Backing vocals
Gayleen Pease:
Backing vocals

Past Masters

Official album • Released in 1988

3:49 • Studio version

Anthology 2

Official album • Released in 1996

3:29 • OuttakeC • Take 2. Here, for the first time, is an unembellished and alternative recording Across The Universe, Take 2, recorded on Saturday 3 February 1968 in EMI Studio Three, temporarily marked "best" on the tape box and so afforded overdubs and technical wonders like the phasing on John's guitar and the percussion.

George Martin:
Ken Scott:

Session Recording:
Feb 04, 1968
EMI Studios, Studio Three, Abbey Road

Let It Be... Naked

Official album • Released in 2003

3:38 • Studio version


Yellow Submarine Sessions

Unofficial album

3:57 • Outtake • Across The Universe Take 2 Complete Stereo

Yellow Submarine Sessions

Unofficial album

4:06 • Outtake • Across The Universe Monitor Mix Of Take 2 Mono

Yellow Submarine Sessions

Unofficial album

3:25 • Outtake • Across The Universe RS From Take 2 Stereo

Yellow Submarine Sessions

Unofficial album

2:06 • Outtake • Across The Universe RS From Take 2 Stereo

Yellow Submarine Sessions

Unofficial album

3:40 • Outtake • Across The Universe Take 7 Complete Stereo

Live performances

Paul McCartney has never played this song in concert.


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